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Diabetic foot ulcer: types and their treatment

Diabetic foot ulcer: types and their treatment



One of the most dangerous things diabetic fear is suffering from one of the complications of diabetes, the most important of which is diabetic foot ulcers, which is the appearance of disease symptoms and signs in the feet of the diabetic patient, such as swelling, wounds, infections, and diabetic foot problems are the most common reasons for hospitalization among diabetics.
Pictures of diabetic foot ulcer
Foot ulcer
Diabetic foot ulcer: types and their treatment

Types of diabetic foot ulcer


Diabetic nerve foot ulcer:

It occurs in a diabetic with neuritis due to lack of pain, heat and cold, the ulcers are painless and often on the soles of the feet or toes, and they result from wearing inappropriate shoes.
Nerve damage also leads to deformation of the foot and dry skin, which causes infection and ulcers.
To treat it, all the factors causing it must be removed, as well as dry skin (calluses) removed by a doctor and the skin should be softened regularly.
And the patient needs to remove pressure from the foot by using special footwear described by a diabetic foot doctor.


Inflammatory diabetic foot ulcer:

It often begins with a diabetic nerve foot ulcer is the ulcer that occurs as a result of inflammation of the peripheral nerves, and can also be multiplied by a bacterial infection, and the ulcer here is a gateway or outlet for the entry of infection and the infection may begin with minor foot injuries and then end with a bacterial ulcer.

Diabetic arterial foot ulcer:

It is caused by hardening of the arteries, which leads to poor blood circulation and is accompanied by coldness and bluish redness in the foot with severe muscle pain when walking and often occurs in the tips of the fingers, and it may result in tissue death and difficulty in healing wounds and may develop into the foot with gangrene.
It is treated by catheterization to widen the arteries or by installing arterial stents, which is performed under local anesthesia without general anesthesia.

Charcot's foot ulcer:

The Charcot's joint is one of the complications that occur due to nerve damage, chronic diabetes, and neuritis with nerve damage, the bones are weak, brittle, and easy to break, but the absence of pain is what makes the patient worsen the condition until the ulcer arises.


Diabetic foot ulcer treatment algorithm


If it is an early stage of diabetic foot ulcer, you should:

Good control of diabetes, blood pressure, and lipids.

Removing pressure from the foot:

It is considered the most important step towards treating diabetic foot and to allow the wound or ulceration to heal by various methods by a specialist doctor.

Adjusting blood flow:

This is because when the blood circulation is poor, the treatment focuses on clearing the blockage of blood vessels or improving blood flow, and this is done by administering drugs or catheter therapy.

Treatment of bacterial infection:

By treating foot infection with appropriate antibiotics.
Removing the inflamed tissue.
Cleaning and dressing wounds and removing hard skin and dead cells. 
Wounds must be kept and cleaned daily by a podiatrist.
Educating diabetics so that they know how to treat and prevent foot problems.

Avoid complications of diabetic foot ulcer


It is a proven fact that up to 85% of all diabetic foot related injuries can be prevented with appropriate measures.
By following the instructions below, to protect yourself from diabetic foot ulcer:

Examine your feet well:

Check daily with your eyes and hands, or with the help of your family
Check between your toes well
Check the bottom of the foot while using a mirror

Look for new and dangerous signs like:

Swelling (especially if it is new or increasing and affects one foot but not the other) redness.
Change in skin temperature (cold feet indicate poor blood circulation or hot feet indicate inflammation).
Dry skin on the feet.
Scratches, cuts, or bleeding (may lead to a sore or infection).
Nail problems (ingrown nails - long nails - deformed nails).
Moisture between the fingers or the presence of white areas may indicate a fungal infection
If you notice any of the above-mentioned signs, you should contact a physician.


Wash your foot daily and take care of them:

Wash your feet daily with soap and lukewarm or warm water.
Avoid using very cold or hot water (check the water temperature with your elbow, not with your palm or feet).
Dry your feet well using a clean, soft towel, especially between the toes, note that submerging the feet with water for a long time is not desirable.
If the skin of your feet is dry, use a little cream to moisturize it, as dry skin may lead to cracks and serious complications, but be careful not to insert the cream between your toes.

Check your shoes well daily:

Inspect the inside of the shoes with your hands and look for:
Any rough areas with the shoe.
Any foreign objects such as small stones or sharp objects.
Tear off the shoe lining.

Wear the right shoes and socks:

Make sure to choose comfortable leather shoes that fit the foot, and avoid using high-heeled shoes that are tight or wet, as well as open toe shoes (slippers and sandals).
The shoes must be made of a material with pores to allow the feet to breathe and the forefoot to be wide so that the fingers can move freely.
Tell the shoe seller that you have diabetes.
When you wear new shoes, you should try them for ten minutes and then take them off, if you see the redness of the skin, this indicates the tightness of the shoe.
The duration of use of the shoe should be gradually increased.
If you are working on two shifts, let there be shoes that you use for the morning and another for the evening period to change the places of pressure on the feet.
don't use shoes without socks.
Avoid socks made of nylon and tights, and socks should always be clean.

Always keep the following:

The level of blood sugar is normal, whether you are fasting or after eating, as well as the level of cholesterol and triglycerides.
Have an ideal body weight.
Exercising regularly.

Medical care for diabetic foot ulcers:

Call a doctor immediately if you notice any dangerous sign.
Ask the doctor to check your feet at every visit.

Refrain from the following actions:

Immediately stop smoking, as smoking leads to hardening of the arteries, poor circulation, prevents blood from reaching the feet, and leads to wounds not healing quickly.
don't use sharp tools or chemicals to remove the horns, as this may cause wounds, leading to contamination. 
don't use a sticky tie on your feet so as not to affect blood circulation.
Cut your nails in a straight, occasional shape. don't trim your nails to the corners and don't trim them very shortly so that the nail does not become sunken into the skin, which leads to many infections and complications.
Keep your feet away from heat (don't put your feet in hot water or on a hot object, as the heat may cause burns, especially if the patient has nerve damage).
don't walk barefoot as sharp objects and rough surfaces can cause cuts.
Wear socks when you sleep if your feet are cold and don't use hot water containers or an electric blanket.
don't treat your feet by yourself, such as using mousse to remove calluses, popular recipes, or special fillings, but you should consult a specialist.

4MUMY wishes you health and wellness
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